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Note: Chapter 42, with References of The Ancient Pottery Of Israel and its Neighbours This chapter concerns Cypriot imports #Cyprus #MBronzeAge #LBronzeAge Note: To protect against computer viruses, e-mail programs may prevent sending or receiving certain types of file attachments. Check your e-mail security settings to determine how attachments are handled.
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339

CHAPTER 4.2

Late Bronze Age I–II Cypriot Imports
Michal Artzy

Cypriot imports in the southern Levant in the
Late Bronze Age I (1550–1400 BCE) and Late
Bronze Age IIA–B (1400–1200 BCE)1 are repre-
sented mainly by Transitional White Painted (WP)
IV–VI, Bichrome, Black Lustrous Wheelmade,
Monochrome, White Slip (WS) I and II, Base
Ring (BR) I and II, Red Lustrous Wheelmade,
White Shaved (WSH), Bucchero, and Plain White
Wheelmade wares.

Transitional White Painted IV–VI Ware
(Pl. 4.2.1)

The thin-walled handmade juglet with a globular
body, high narrow neck, trefoil mouth, and flat base
is the most common Late Bronze Age imported
Transitional WP IV–VI vessel in the southern
Levant. It has dark brown decoration (Pl. 4.2.1:1–2
[see also Photo 4.2.1:1]). Smaller and coarser
jugs and juglets with a wide neck also occur (Pl.
4.2.1:3), as do small “teapots” (juglets with a spout
and handle), similar to the WSH examples (Pl.
4.2.17:9).

Bichrome Ware
(Pls. 4.2.2–4.2.7)

The two colors of Bichrome ware decoration are
red/brown and black/blue, although pigment varia-
tions are common. Bichrome ware was initially
designated “Palestinian Bichrome Ware” or “Late

1. According to the traditional dating in NEAEHL 5: 2126.

Bronze Bichrome Ware.”2 The majority of the
examples excavated locally comes from Tell el-
ªAjjul and Megiddo, and a rich assemblage of these
vessels was found in a cemetery at Milia in eastern
Cyprus (Westholm 1939). Based on these three
assemblages, two Bichrome groups were identi-
fied, both initially attributed to the “Tell el-ªAjjul
Painter”: the “Early Pre-Figure Style” prevalent at
Megiddo and the “Mature Style” predominant at
ªAjjul and especially Milia (Heurtley 1939: 32–34).
This attribution, however, was subsequently rejected
on the basis of stratigraphic analyses (Epstein 1966:
88–105). Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) used
to establish provenience of Bichrome ware from
Megiddo indicated that the “Mature Style” vessels
were made of eastern Cypriot clay and the “Pre-
Figure Style” ware was made of clay originating
in the area of the site, a phenomenon that may be
paralleled at other sites (Artzy, Asaro, and Perlman
1973; Artzy, Perlman, and Asaro 1978). Although
Cypriot Bichrome imports may first appear at the
end of the MB IIC, the majority dates to the LB I.

Cypriot Bichrome ware tends to be well-lev-
igated, buff-green or light pink-buff in color, and
the vessels are burnished or self-slipped. They are
usually wheelmade, although handmade examples
are known on Cyprus (Åström 2001: 131–33).
Decoration includes geometric motifs such as
spoked wheels, Maltese crosses, Union Jacks, tri-
angles, lattice panels, and ladders, among others
(Pl. 4.2.7). On many vessels, animal motifs—bulls
and other quadrupeds, fish, and birds—and stylized
trees appear alongside the geometric decorations
(Pl. 4.2.6). The motif of a bird perched on a large

2. See Artzy 2001a.



340 MICHAL ARTZY

fish is rare (Pl. 4.2.6:6–8).3 Human representa-
tions generally occur only on vessels excavated
on Cyprus, although one example has been found
at Acco (Beeri 2008: 293, Fig. 7:4). The decora-
tion on some vessels may include metopes, usu-
ally executed in horizontal rectangles divided by
geometrical segments in two colors into which an
additional motif is added, or with horizontal lines
executed in a similar manner (Pls. 4.2.3:1, 4.2.5:2).

The Cypriot Bichrome forms are similar to
Transitional WP IV–VI vessels. Bichrome ware
jugs, especially those with a cross-line motif, and
tankards are distinguishable from the WP examples
because of their decorative features—such as color,
style, and the addition of figurative motifs—and
because they are wheelmade (Photo 4.2.1:7–9). On
Cyprus, especially at Milia and Ayia Irini, the most
prevalent form is the jug or tankard with a globu-
lar body, high cylindrical neck, everted rim, ring
base, and strap handle extending from the rim to
the shoulder (Pl. 4.2.2 [Pl. 4.2.2:1 = Photo 4.2.1:3;
Pl. 4.2.2:3 = Photo 4.2.1:2; see also Photo 4.2.1:4,
6]). More common in the Levant than on Cyprus are
carinated kraters with an overhanging everted rim,
convex ring base, and two loop handles attached on
the shoulder (Pl. 4.2.4:3), kraters with a single hori-
zontal handle (Pl. 4.2.5:1), and shallow round-sided
bowls with a horizontal handle (Pl. 4.2.4:1–2), the
last reminiscent of WP and WS bowls, a common
Cypriot form. It seems that Cypriot potters manu-
factured “drinking sets” comprising the forms
more common in the Levant—kraters, juglets, and
bowls—for export to centers such as Alalakh and
Ras Shamra and farther south to Acco and ªAjjul,
among others. Less common forms both in the
Levant and on Cyprus include the storage jar, simi-
lar to the Transitional WP IV–VI type (Epstein 1966:
17, Pl. VIII:3–4). Other unusual vessels include a jar
with a fish motif (Pl. 4.2.5:3) and a small carinated,
spouted krater with an out-turned rim (Pl. 4.2.5:4).
Zoomorphic vessels have thus far been found only
on Cyprus (SCE IV/1C: 120–21).

3. This maritime motif in two colors also appears at
Phylakopi on Melos in the Cycladic Islands in Middle
Bronze Age contexts (Artzy 2001a: 165, Fig. 2; 2006:
11).

On Cyprus, handmade Bichrome ware is dated
to the latter Middle Cypriot period and early Late
Cypriot (LC) IA1, and wheelmade ware to the LC
IA1, concurrent with the WP VI family (Åström
2001). While the production of these vessels at
Milia seems to have been short-lived, the tradition
of wheelmade ceramics on Cyprus is of long dura-
tion, and thus, neither the use of the wheel nor the
presence of Bichrome ware can serve as a chrono-
logical marker. The few imported Cypriot tankards
found at Megiddo appear to have been produced in
the area of Milia (Pl. 4.2.2:2). They are attributed to
Stratum IX, and probably served as the inspiration
for the local potters to manufacture the tankard-like
jug found at the site (Pl. 4.2.3:2), with proportions
and decorations not quite the same as the Cypriot
tankards (compare Pl. 4.2.3:2 with Pl. 4.2.3:1).
These local imitations generally also have a shorter
neck, with decoration only on the upper half of
the body (Artzy, Perlman, and Asaro 1978; Artzy
2001a: 167, Fig. 3). The clay is not as well levigated
and the vessels are usually not self-slipped; some
vessels are burnished. Locally-produced tankard-
like jugs, designated “Late Bronze Painted” ware
(Amiran 1969: 146), were produced in the Megiddo
area (Photos 4.2.1:10–11). Debased forms and deco-
rations occur in Strata IX and VIII (Megiddo II:
Pl. 57:13, 21). The examples from Stratum IX are
assigned to the LB I (16th–15th centuries BCE), and
those from Stratum VIII to the LB II (14th century
BCE).

Other Bichrome ware types made of local clay
from the Megiddo region include globular jugs with
a short splayed neck and often a loop handle on the
shoulder (Pl. 4.2.3:3), a form that probably devel-
oped from Middle Bronze Age types prevalent in
Syria, as at Ebla and Ugarit (Pl. 4.2.3:4–5). While
they first appear at Megiddo in Stratum X, they are
more common in Strata IX and VIII. NAA studies
have also demonstrated the existence of other local
Bichrome ware production centers (Artzy, Asaro,
and Perlman 1973: 460).

While Cypriot Bichrome ware has been found
at many Syro-Palestinian sites, especially near the
coast and commercial hinterland, no examples other
than those made of Cypriot clay have been found
on Cyprus (Pl. 4.2.5:6 [see also Photo 4.2.1:5]). The



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 341

majority of the Cypriot Bichrome vessels found
outside Cyprus originated in the Milia region, and
some vessels decorated in two colors were also
produced in other centers on the island (Artzy,
Asaro, and Perlman 1973: 456–58) and elsewhere:
a cylindrical juglet from Acco was shown by
petrographic analysis to have been manufactured
of northern Canaanite coastal clay (Pl. 4.2.5:5). The
provenience of an example from Ras Shamra (Pl.
4.2.5:7) is uncertain.

Black Lustrous Wheelmade Ware
(Pl. 4.2.8)

The only examples of Black Lustrous Wheelmade
ware4 found at sites in Israel are jugs and juglets,
usually grave goods. Juglets of this family, previ-
ously designated “Grey Juglets,” were assumed to
have originated in the Levant, possibly because
they were wheelmade. Provenience studies on ves-
sels from Tel Jatt (Yannai 2000a) and from Cyprus
indicate that the earliest examples, dating to the
MB IIB, are of Cypriot manufacture, although this
does not preclude the possibility that some were
produced locally in the southern Levant and the
region of Lebanon-Syria.

The shape of the juglet is reminiscent of those
of the Cypriot WP family (Yannai and Gorzalczany
2007: 199), and they usually have a globular body,
narrow splayed neck, out-turned rim, rounded or
flat base, and loop-like handle extending from
below the rim to the shoulder (Pl. 4.2.8:2–4). One
jug has a high wide neck, a concave base, and a
loop handle attached from the ribbing on the neck
to the shoulder; the dark surface is burnished,
although not uniformly (Pl. 4.2.8:1). The distinction
between locally-produced and imported juglets is
based mainly on the fabric: Cypriot imports tend to
have mica inclusions.

These juglets may first appear either in the MB
IIC or LB I. They did not have a lengthy time-span
as imports, since they were soon replaced by imita-
tions produced on the Lebanese coast and locally.

4. Which may appear gray.

Monochrome Ware
(Pl. 4.2.9)

The basis for classifying a vessel as belonging to the
Monochrome family, its origin on Cyprus, and its
relationship to earlier Cypriot wares are still debated
among scholars dealing with Cypriot ceramics
both on Cyprus and elsewhere (Pilides 1991; 1994;
Russell 1991). Outside of Cyprus, Monochrome ves-
sels are usually found at sites along the coast and
the trade routes leading inland. The most common
form is the shallow bowl; a few deep bowls (or
kraters) and jugs occur in both domestic contexts
and burials. Like Black Lustrous Wheelmade ware,
Monochrome ware first appears either in the MB
IIC or LB I. It is most common in the LB IIB.

The majority of the Monochrome ware imported
into Canaan is handmade and has a metallic fabric
(Sjöqvist 1940: 30).5 It is usually brown-buff in
color and has a red-orange slip, which on the ear-
lier vessels tends to peel off easily. Monochrome
ware occurs interchangeably with BR ware, and it
is often difficult to differentiate them.

Monochrome bowls can be divided into three
main types. The earliest is a round or slightly cari-
nated shallow bowl with a simple everted rim, a
high concave or flat base, and an upwardly-angled
horizontal handle (Pl. 4.2.9:1–3). The handle is usu-
ally pinched at the end, giving it a wishbone appear-
ance (Pl. 4.2.9:1–2, Photo 4.2.2:4), like that on the
BR (Pl. 4.2.10:1–3, Photo 4.2.2:6 [see also Photo
4.2.2:7–8]) and WS (Pls. 4.2.13:3–4, 4.2.15:1–2)
bowls presented below. The second type occurs
more frequently in Canaan, generally dated to LB
IIA, and is similar to the earliest type except for
the in-turned rim (Pl. 4.2.9:4, 6).6 The scratches on
the surface could be the result of a production tech-
nique for ensuring that the slip adheres to the fabric.
The third type is a large deep bowl with a rounded
carination and a sharply upwardly-angled wish-
bone handle, and is usually made of a brown-buff

5. For general studies on Monochrome ware in Canaan,
see Oren 1969; Gittlen 1977; Bergoffen 1991.

6. For an example of this bowl type with a spout opposite
the handle, see Ancient Gaza II: Pl. 34:64a (Rockefeller
Museum No. 32-2049).



342 MICHAL ARTZY

fabric, probably of eastern Cypriot origin (Pl.
4.2.9:5). Its distribution in the southern Levant is
limited.

Most of the rare Monochrome jugs in the south-
ern Levant have an ovoid or globular body, a high
vertical neck, and a sharply everted rim (Pl. 4.2.9:8)
or a short outwardly-angled neck (Pl. 4.2.9:9).
They have a trefoil mouth and a large loop handle
extending from the rim to the shoulder inserted into
the vessel. Another jug that might belong to the
Monochrome family has a trefoil rim and a slightly
concave base (Pl. 4.2.9:7).

White Slip Ware
(Pls. 4.2.10–4.2.12)

WS ware is the most common Cypriot ceramic
import in the Levant in the Late Bronze Age, fol-
lowed by BR ware, and first appears at the end of
the MB IIC (Eriksson 2007: 51–52). It continues to
be imported, albeit with changes, for the next 400
years until the end of the Late Bronze Age in the
early 12th century BCE. WS ware is usually divided
into three main groups: Proto-WS, WS I, and WS
II (SCE IV/1C: 431–71). Proto-WS is rare outside
Cyprus, with the largest assemblage found at
ªAjjul (Pl. 4.2.10:1, Photo 4.2.2:6).7 WS I ware (Pl.
4.2.10:2) is usually found at sites along the north-
ern and southern coastal areas and routes leading
inland. The third group, WS II, is the most common
in the Levant. The earliest appearance of WS I is
in the LB IA, and it continues well into the LB
IIA, alongside classic WS II bowls (Pls. 4.2.10:3,
4.2.11:1), as exemplified at Tell Abu Hawam, where
thousands of WS II and a few WS I sherds were
excavated in Stratum V. WS sub-groups include
Transitional WS I–II (Pl. 4.2.11:2–3 [WS IIA]), WS
IIB (Pl. 4.2.11:4), and WS IIB/III (Pl. 4.2.11:5–6,
Photo 4.2.2:5), among others.

The vast majority of the WS assemblage is
represented by handmade bowls of various sizes,
known in the Levant as milk bowls, the function of
which is still uncertain. WS bowls are usually hemi-
spherical and have a simple or tapered often slightly

7. Bergoffen 2001b.

in-turned and sometimes everted rim. They usually
have a wishbone handle on the shoulder. The bowls
are slipped on the interior and exterior and deco-
rated on the exterior and the handle. The horizontal
band near the rim and vertical bands toward the
center of the bowl are usually rendered in matt dark
brown paint, although lighter brown, dark almost
black, and combinations of browns are also known.
The WS I examples have decorations of lozenges,
wavy lines, cross-hatching, dotted rows, and other
delicate patterns applied with a single-tip brush
(Pls. 4.2.10:2 [see also Photo 4.2.2:7–8]), 4.2.12:1).
On the WS II examples, the more common import,
the horizontal and vertical designs are either ladders
or plain lines produced with a multiple-tip brush,
although additional decorative elements also appear
(Pls. 4.2.11:4–6 [Photo 4.2.2:5], 4.2.12:5). There is
also a difference in the size of the bowls: the ear-
lier WS II bowls tend to be larger than the later.
The latter have much simpler decoration, one of
the indications of mass production, as is the virtual
disregard for the quality of the slip and fabric of
the examples with a thin grayish slip at the end of
the LB IIB.

Very few examples of tankard-like jugs are
known from the southern Levant (Pl. 4.2.10:4).
NAA has demonstrated that WS I and WS II wares
were produced from a specific clay, usually bluish-
gray at the core (Artzy 2001b). The only produc-
tion center identified thus far is at Sanidha in the
Kalavasos area in southeastern Cyprus, at the foot-
hills of the Troodos Mountains (Todd and Pilides
2001).

Large quantities of the ware have been exca-
vated in LB IIB settlement and burial contexts, for
example, at coastal sites in the Carmel and Sharon
and along routes leading from the coast to the eco-
nomic hinterland. One explanation for the quan-
tity of WS ware relates to the nature of economic
exchange in this period, with entrepreneurial trade
replaced by the more extensive elite trade. This is
probably the best example of ceramics used in the
“sailors’ trade,” in which mariners in the service of
the economic powers would use products of Cypriot
cottage industries and the available space on ships
to trade for their own economic benefit.



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 343

Base Ring Ware
(BR I: Pls. 4.2.13–4.2.14; BR II: Pl. 4.2.15)

BR ware originates on Cyprus and, as mentioned
above, is the second most common import after WS
ware into the Levant in the Late Bronze Age. The
designation stems from the accentuated ring base
on most of the ware types. The distinctive dark gray
ware has a metallic ring when tapped. Like early
WS ware, the largest and most diverse assemblage
of early BR ware in Canaan comes from ªAjjul
(Bergoffen 2001a: 31).

While no production centers have yet been
found on Cyprus, the particular clay from which
BR vessels were produced was used for earlier
typical Cypriot wares, and this, together with the
prevalence and varieties of BR types and forms on
the island, indicate its Cypriot origin. Petrographic
analyses of the ware sub-groups on Cyprus show
regional differences, pointing to several production
workshops (Vaughn 1987).

The chronological division of the two main
groups of BR ware—BR I and BR II—is not defini-
tive, since they can appear concurrently, especially
in the LB II. Both groups were manufactured of
a similar clay type, as established by NAA (Artzy
1985), although there are variations in color and
even texture due not only to technological aspects
in their production, but also to Cypriot regional dif-
ferences (Vaughn 2001: 124–25). Clay color ranges
from black-brown to reddish-brown, orange, and
gray. The vessels are usually slipped, and the brush
marks are sometimes noticeable. The jugs are hand-
made and were often produced in separate sections,
with the handles usually inserted into a hole punc-
tured in the body of the vessel (Pl. 4.2.14:1–2). On
many of the BR II examples, the neck leans toward
the handle side; since the handle was added after
the vessel was leather-hard, the firing caused the
distortion (Pl. 4.2.15:3–4). This jug is also referred
to locally as a “bilbil,” an onomatopoeic term based
on the sound made when water is poured from the
vessel.

Of the BR imports from Cyprus, BR II is the
more common. BR I first appears in the LB IA,
although it is more characteristic of the LB IB,
as attested by numerous tomb deposits at ªAjjul

(Bergoffen 2001a). The ware continues into the
LB IIA, albeit in smaller quantities. BR I vessels
are usually decorated with plastic clay bands (Pl.
4.2.14:2–4) or incised bands (Pl. 4.2.14:5–6). The
typical ridge on the neck might be the result of a
production technique rather than a decoration. The
prevalent form is a jug with a globular or ovoid
body, a high narrow neck, an everted rim, a pro-
nounced ring base, a strap handle extending from
the neck ridge to the shoulder, and sometimes with
a trefoil mouth. It is related to the use of opium,8
and resembles an upside-down poppy-seed (Pl.
4.2.14:3–4). Other forms include wide-necked jugs
with elaborate plastic decoration, some with a cut
rim (Pl. 4.2.14:1); bowls with plastic decoration
(Pl. 4.2.13:1–2) or with a funnel-shaped body, high
carination, inverted or everted rim, ring base, and
upwardly-angled wishbone handle (Pl. 4.2.13:3–4);
wide-mouthed kraters with a globular body, high
vertical neck, overhanging rim, ring base, an elabo-
rate wishbone-type handle, and combed decoration
(Pl. 4.2.13:5); tankard-like mugs (Pl. 4.2.14:7);
lentoid pilgrim flasks (Pl. 4.2.14:10); and spindle
bottles (Pl. 4.2.14:8–9). Not all of the types known
on Cyprus appear in Canaan.

BR II, with similar forms as BR I, first appears
in the LB IIA, when the two groups occur concur-
rently. BR II eventually completely replaces BR I.
In contrast to the latter, BR II does not have plastic
decoration; instead, the vessels are often decorated
with painted white bands created with a multi-tip
brush (Pl. 4.2.15:5, 7). The wide-necked jug type
is prevalent (Pl. 4.2.15:5, Photo 4.2.2:1), especially
in burials. Other forms include lentoid flasks (Pl.
4.2.15:7, Photo 4.2.2:2 [see also Photo 4.2.2:3]),
spindle bottles (Pl. 4.2.14:8–9), juglets, spouted
jugs, and zoomorphic vessels (Photo 4.2.2:19–21).
In the LB IIB, the noticeably large number of bowls
in occupation and other contexts (Pl. 4.2.15:1–2),
especially on the coast, represents evidence of the
“sailors’ trade” in the Mediterranean, in which the
Cypriots played an important role (Artzy 1985).

In the heyday of Cypriot imports, local potters
produced copies, usually slipped and painted jugs,
without access to specific Cypriot clays. The results

8. Merrillees 1962; Koschel 1996.



344 MICHAL ARTZY

are heavier vessels with thicker walls. Petrographic
analyses of some of the local imitations have
established a production center on the Lebanese-
Syrian coast between Acco and Ugarit (Yannai,
Gorzalczany, and Peilstöcker 2003). Based on the
quantities of such imitations found at other sites, it
is likely that there were a number of local produc-
tion centers in the coastal areas.

Red Lustrous Wheelmade Ware
(Pl. 4.2.16)

Red Lustrous Wheelmade ware occurs in a limited
number of forms, mainly spindle bottles. These are
usually made of very well-levigated clay, which
makes it almost impossible to identify its origin by
means of petrographic analysis. Suggested places of
origin include Egypt and northern Syria. Based on
the greater variety of forms, extensive distribution
pattern, and longer history of the ware on Cyprus,
it is presently considered the most likely center
of manufacture (Eriksson 2007: 51; Knappett and
Kilikoglou 2007: 133). However, in light of the
discovery of numerous examples of Red Lustrous
Wheelmade ware at Boghazköy-Hattusa (Seeher
2001: 352; 2002: 64, Fig. 7) and in the Gösku Valley
in Anatolia (Kozal 2003), the claim that statistically
more examples are found on Cyprus than elsewhere
is not accurate. The ware was apparently produced
in other centers as well (Artzy 2007: 15–16, Graph
1), especially in light of the identification of an addi-
tional production center on the Lebanese-Syrian
coast (Yannai, Gorzalczany, and Peilstöcker 2003:
111, Fig. 3:6–9).

Red Lustrous Wheelmade vessels are usually
reddish in color throughout, a sign of a well-con-
trolled kiln. They are self-slipped in the same color
as the ware, and were burnished when leather-hard.
The quality of the burnishing is variable, and at
times the burnished slip flakes off. Impressed marks
on the base made before firing (Pl. 4.2.16:1–2)
might be Cypro-Minoan script signs (Hirschfeld
2008: 123).

As mentioned above, the most common form
in general and in the southern Levant in particular
is the spindle bottle (Eriksson 1993: 99–106). It has

an elongated cylindrical body tapering to a short
ring base, a pronounced shoulder, a high narrow
neck, an overhanging, everted, ring-like rim, and a
handle extending from below the rim to the shoul-
der (Pl. 4.2.16:1–2, Photo 4.2.2:9, 13–14). Bottles
with thicker proportions (Pl. 4.2.16:3–4, Photos
4.2.2:10–12, 15–16) and jug-shaped examples (Pl.
4.2.16:5–6) also occur. Another form, of which
there are only a few examples in Canaan, is the
pilgrim flask (Pl. 4.2.16:7). Some of the bottles are
similar to Cypriot BR and WSH ware vessels. The
bottle also occurs, albeit rarely, in White Lustrous
Wheelmade ware, of which only a few examples
have been found in the southern Levant.9 A vessel
in the form of an arm is also associated with the Red
Lustrous Wheelmade ware (Pl. 4.2.16:8).10 In Israel,
these vessels have been found only at Abu Hawam
(Balensi and Herrera 1985: 110, Fig. 14:6).

White Shaved Ware
(Pl. 4.2.17)

WSH ware is also known as Knife-Shaved ware,
since most vessels bear signs of having been shaved
with a flat instrument when leather-hard. Forms
in the Levant are limited to small closed vessels,
mostly oval-shaped juglets with a pointed base,
narrow out-curved neck, and pinched or trefoil
mouth, the handle attached from slightly above the
rim to the shoulder, inserted into a hole perforated
in the vessel (Pl. 4.2.17:1–5). Other forms include
juglets with a rounded base (Pl. 4.2.17:8), spindle
bottles, and rattles with a pinched rim and carved
animal-like eyes, all of which are handmade.

9. NAA on examples from Cyprus show that they were
produced of eastern Cypriot clay, similar to that used for
WP but not for Red Lustrous Wheelmade ware (Artzy
2007: 13). The clay of the White Lustrous Wheelmade
bottle base found in the anchorage at Abu Hawam
appears to indicate northern coastal production.

10. Both of the two variants of arm-shaped vessels found on
Cyprus were probably used in cultic activities (Eriksson
1993: 27). The large number of examples excavated at
Böghazköy-Hattusa, the Hittite capital (Seeher 2001:
64–65), has stimulated renewed discussion on the origin
of the ware.



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 345

Some vessels, like the “teapot,” may be deco-
rated with brown-black or reddish-brown lines (Pl.
4.2.17:9). As a result, they are often classified as
Transitional WP VI ware, but their fabric and manu-
facturing technique indicate that they in fact belong
to the WSH ware group. WSH ware is usually tan-
colored, sometimes with a greenish or pinkish hue.
It is well levigated and the low firing gives it a soft
texture.

The earliest appearance of Cypriot WSH ware
juglets in the southern Levant is at the end of the
LB I (Pl. 4.2.17:1), and their frequency increases,
especially in burials at sites along the coast and
inland routes, in the LB IIA and early LB IIB (Pl.
4.2.17:2–4, Photo 4.2.2:17–18). Local imitations
also appear (Pl. 4.2.17:6–7), and at times it is dif-
ficult to distinguish them from the Cypriot products
(Pl. 4.2.17:5). On Cyprus, these vessels continue
through the Late Bronze Age, and no examples
made of fabric other than Cypriot clay have been
found thus far.11 The eastern Cypriot origin of the
ware has been demonstrated by both quantitative
and qualitative analyses, although there may have
been more than one production center (Artzy 2006a:
55), especially since more WSH juglets have been
excavated in the Levant than on Cyprus.

Bucchero Ware
(Pl. 4.2.18)

The distinctive element of Bucchero ware is
the vertical raised ribs or lines on the body (Pl.
4.2.18:2), imitating fluting on metal vessels. On
Cyprus, both jugs and juglets, usually handmade,
appear in Bucchero ware, but only a limited number
of jugs have been identified in the southern Levant.
They tend to have an exaggerated piriform body
with a wide cylindrical neck, everted rim, and ring
base (Pl. 4.2.18:1–2). Ware color varies from brown-
black to brown-red and buff, and the core, like that
of BR II ware, is usually gray. The jugs have a thin
black, brown, or reddish slip. Although the fabric

11. See, for example, the numerous juglets, including min-
iature examples, excavated at Athienou (Athienou: 69,
Fig. 25:5–13).

is similar to that of BR ware and at times it is diffi-
cult to distinguish between the two, Bucchero ware
differs mainly in decoration and vessel size. One
example similar in form to BR ware has painted
decoration (Pl. 4.2.18:3).

In the southern Levant, Bucchero ware usu-
ally appears in burials alongside other Cypriot
imports—especially BR II ware—dated to the LB
IIA, and continues into the early LB IIB.

Plain White Wheelmade Ware
(Pls. 4.2.19–4.2.20)

Based on form and fabric, an assemblage of undec-
orated utilitarian ceramics—including bowls, krat-
ers/small basins, pithoi, storage jars, and jugs, as
well as wall brackets—are also considered to have
originated on Cyprus. Some are so similar to local
Late Bronze Age southern Levantine ceramics that
the only way to distinguish between them is ware
analysis.

This chapter includes two of the possibly several
distinct fabric groups of Plain White Wheelmade
ware found in the southern Levant. One has a buff
fabric with a green or gray tinge. It contains small
dark inclusions and mica, creating a somewhat
gritty fabric, and the core is usually the same color
as the surface. Most wall brackets (Pl. 4.2.20:8–9)
and pithoi (Pl. 4.2.20:2–3) and some bowls (Pl.
4.2.19:1–5), small basins (Pl. 4.2.19:6), kraters (Pls.
4.2.19:7–10, 4.2.20:4), jugs (Pl. 4.2.20:5), bottles
(Pl. 4.2.20:6), and jars (Pl. 4.2.20:7) are made of
this ware. The second group has a pink to light
brown fabric with small inclusions, including mica,
and a lighter self-slip than that of the first group.
Bowls and kraters, some with an incised decoration,
are made of this ware (Pl. 4.2.20:1).

Several of the forms, including wall brackets
and pithoi, were produced not only on Cyprus,
but also along the northern Syro-Lebanese coast,
as well as in the Haifa Bay area.12 Other forms
include bowls and kraters with a light-colored self-
slip, both on the Cypriot examples and on those
originating along the Syro-Lebanese coast and in

12. Panitz-Cohen 2006.



346 MICHAL ARTZY

the environs of Abu Hawam (Artzy 2006a). During
the Late Bronze Age, the maritime storage jar was
also produced on Cyprus (Maa-Palaeokastro
Appendix IV/2: 395). It is very similar in shape to
the “Canaanite jar” manufactured in the Haifa Bay
area, which also appears in Egypt, and examples
were found in the Uluburun shipwreck (Pulak
2008: 317–19; for an example from Beth-Shean,
see Pl. 3.26:6).

While the vast majority of vessels are undeco-
rated, the occasional incised or painted decoration
on Cypriot plain wares (SCE IV/1C: 264) was easily
imitated (Pl. 4.2.19:10). Who was borrowing from
whom is difficult to establish, but the provenience
of the ceramic assemblage koine can be distin-
guished and classified by ware analyses.



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 347

Plate 4.2.1: Transitional White Painted IV–VI

1. Juglet Buff; white slip, dark brown-black decoration Acco Area C
Locus 1331

M. Dothan 1976, p. 19, Fig. 17:6

2. Juglet Orange; reddish-brown decoration Kabri Tomb 902 Kabri, Fig. 5.61:12

3. Juglet Greenish-buff; brown decoration Acco Area H
Locus 932

Reg. No. B1164/1



348 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.2: Bichrome

1. Tankard Buff; dark red and dark brown decoration Milia Tomb 10 Westholm 1939, Pl. I:2

2. Tankard Light pink; red-orange and dark brown
decoration

Milia Tomb 10 Westholm 1939, Pl. I:3

3. Tankard Yellow slip, close vertical burnish, blue-
black and red decoration

Megiddo Tomb 1100 C Megiddo Tombs, Pl. 48:3

Plate 4.2.3: Bichrome

1. Tankard Light buff; red and black decoration Ayia Irini LBA
Tomb

Pecorella 1977, Pl. 577:22

2. Jug Buff; red and black decoration Megiddo IX
Tomb 2108

Megiddo II, Pl. 49:7

3. Jug Brown ocher; vertical burnish, sepia and
red decoration

Megiddo Tomb 1100A Megiddo Tombs, Pl. 46:16

4. Jug Greenish-buff; dark brown and dark red
decoration

Ras Shamra Tomb LVII Ugaritica I, Fig 53:P

5. Jug Grayish-buff; dark and light brown and
dark and light red decoration

Ras Shamra Tomb LVII Ugaritica I, Fig 53:R

Plate 4.2.4: Bichrome

1. Bowl Buff; red and dark brown decoration ªAjjul City II Ancient Gaza I, Pl. XXXIX:23 A8

2. Bowl Buff; red and black decoration Acco Tomb 877 Beeri 2008, Pl. 20:28

3. Krater Buff; burnish, dark brown and red
decoration

Nagila VI Amiran 1969, Pl. 48:10



Plate 4.2.2



350 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.3



Plate 4.2.4



352 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.5: Bichrome

1. Krater Pink-buff; pink-buff slip, burnish, red
and black decoration

Beth-
Shemesh

Amiran 1969, Pl. 48:9

2. Krater Pink; buff slip, red and black decoration Lachish Temple I Lachish II, Pl. XLIXB:256

3. Jar Buff; buff slip, burnish, red and black
decoration

ªAjjul Tomb 1717 Ancient Gaza IV, Pl.
LXII:3

4. Spouted
krater

Pink-buff; burnish exterior, red and
black decoration

Megiddo IX Megiddo II, Pl. 51:9

5. Juglet Grayish-buff; buff-pink slip, burnish,
red-brown and black decoration

Acco Tomb 887 Beeri 2008, Pl. 15:20

6. Juglet Pinkish-buff; buff-pink slip, burnish,
dark brown and red decoration

Milia Tomb 10 Westholm 1939, Pl. III:8

7. Juglet – Ras Shamra Tomb LXXV Schaeffer 1939, p. 282, Fig.
4:N



Plate 4.2.5



354 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.6: Bichrome motifs

1. Caprine Nagila Amiran and Eitan 1964, p. 222, Fig. 2

2. Caprine Lachish Lachish II, Pl. LVIIIA:1

3. Bull ªAjjul Ancient Gaza II, Pl. XXXVIII:1

4. Bird Lachish Lachish II, Pl. LVIIIA:1

5. Bird perched on bird ªAjjul Ancient Gaza I, Pl. XXVIII:5

6. Bird on fish ªAjjul Ancient Gaza IV, Pl. XLIII:8

7. Bird on fish ªAjjul Ancient Gaza IV, Pl. XLIII:4

8. Bird on fish ªAjjul Ancient Gaza I, Pl. XXV:8

9. Fish ªAjjul Ancient Gaza IV, Pl. XLII:1

10. Tree ªAjjul Ancient Gaza II, Pl. XXXVIII:12

11. Tree Megiddo Megiddo II, Pl. 51:7

12. Tree ªAjjul Ancient Gaza I, Pl. XXIX:6



Plate 4.2.6



356 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.7: Bichrome motifs

1. Maltese cross Ras Shamra Ugaritica II, Fig. 67:5

2. Maltese cross ªAjjul Ancient Gaza IV, Pl. XLIV:10

3. Spoked wheel Ras Shamra Ugaritica II, Fig. 67:5

4. Spoked Maltese cross ªAjjul Ancient Gaza II, Pl. XXXIX:20

5. Union Jack Ras Shamra Ugaritica VII, Fig. 9:4

6. Joined spoked wheels Mor Mor, Fig. 5.7:1

7. Lattice panel between straight lines Ras Shamra Ugaritica I, Fig. 53:P

8. Lozenges between straight lines ªAjjul Ancient Gaza I, Pl. XXVIII:5

9. Net lozenges between straight lines ªAjjul Ancient Gaza IV, Pl. XLIII:4

10. Interlaced triangles between straight lines ªAjjul Ancient Gaza IV, Pl. XLII:2

11. Panel of Union Jacks between straight lines Lachish Lachish II, Pl. LVIIIA:2

12. Lattice triangles between straight lines Ayia Irini Pecorella 1977, Fig. 577:23

13. Crossed lines ªAjjul Ancient Gaza IV, Pl. XLII:1

14. Interlaced triangles between straight lines ªAjjul Ancient Gaza I, Pl. XXIX:6

15. Wavy line between straight lines Megiddo Megiddo II, Pl. 51:7



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 357

Plate 4.2.7



358 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.8: Black Lustrous Wheelmade

1. Jug Dark gray; black slip, dense burnish Jatt Early
Burial Phase

Yannai 2000a, p. 69, Fig. 6:62

2. Juglet Gray Jatt Early
Burial Phase

Yannai 2000a, p. 69, Fig. 6:65

3. Juglet Gray Kabri Tomb 902 Kabri, Fig. 5.61:8

4. Juglet Gray Kabri Tomb 902 Kabri, Fig. 5.61:9



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 359

Plate 4.2.9: Monochrome

1. Bowl Dark red-brown slip Jatt Early
Burial Phase

Yannai 2000a, p. 71, Fig. 8:88

2. Bowl Brick red; cream slip Beth-Shean Tomb 42 Beth-Shean 1973, Fig 30:19

3. Bowl Pink; matt brown-red slip, burnish Acco Tomb 877 Beeri 2008, Pl. 21:41

4. Bowl Burnt umber; red wash Megiddo Tomb 1100 C Megiddo Tombs, Pl. 48:8

5. Bowl Buff; brown slip Lachish Temple I Lachish II, Pl. XLIVB:168

6. Bowl Brown-pink; red wash Michal XVI/XV Michal, Fig. 5.10:16

7. Jug Reddish-brown; reddish-brown slip Gibeon Tomb 10A Gibeon, Fig. 7:17

8. Jug BR I#, brown; shiny dark gray slip Lachish Tomb 4004 Lachish IV, Pl. 80:837

9. Jug Brown; black slip, incised
decoration

Lachish Tomb 216 Lachish IV, Pl. 79:829

# In published description

Plate 4.2.10: White Slip

1. Bowl Proto-WS ªAjjul Tomb 1463 Oren 2001, p. 135, Fig. 10

2. Bowl WS I, brown; white slip, hand burnish,
brown decoration

Michal XVI/XV Michal, Fig. 5.10:5

3. Bowl WS II, buff; white slip, irregular burnish,
dark brown decoration

Lachish Tomb 501 Lachish IV, Pl. 79:833

4. Tankard-like
jug

WS II; white slip, dark brown decoration Gezer Tomb 30 Amiran 1969, Pl. 53:7



360 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.9



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 361

Plate 4.2.10



362 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.11: White Slip

1. Bowl WS II; light buff slip, dark brown
decoration

Nami Cemetery
Locus 19

Reg. No. TN O 37-86, 558/1

2. Bowl WS IIA, red; white slip, black to dark
brown-red decoration

Abu Hawam V Balensi 1980, Pl. 27:9

3. Bowl WS IIA, dark brown-red; white to pink
slip, black to brown-red decoration

Abu Hawam V Balensi 1980, Pl. 27:10

4. Bowl WS IIB; white slip, horizontal burnish,
brown decoration

Abu Hawam Anchorage Artzy 2001b, p. 109, Fig. 2: top

5. Bowl WS IIB/III; light buff slip, brown
decoration

Nami Cemetery
Locus 75

Reg. No. TN O 13-88, 13/4

6. Bowl WS IIB/III; light brown slip, dark
brown decoration

Nami Cemetery
Locus 65

Reg. No. TN O 13-88, 88/3



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 363

Plate 4.2.11



364 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.12: White Slip motifs

1. WS I; framed lozenges ªAjjul Bergoffen 2001b, p. 149, Fig. 4:1

2. WS I; ladder framed lozenges ªAjjul Bergoffen 2001b, p. 149, Fig. 4:9

3. WS I; lattice ladder framed lozenges ªAjjul Bergoffen 2001b, p. 149, Fig. 4:13

4. WS I; multiple crossed lozenges framed by lattice
ladder

ªAjjul Bergoffen 2001b, p. 149, Fig. 4:16

5. WS II; wavy line framed by straight lines Abu Hawam Artzy 2001b, p. 109, Fig. 2

6. WS II; framed rows of triangles Abu Hawam Artzy 2001b, p. 109, Fig. 2

7. WS I/II transition; framed hatched multiple lozenges Ayios Dhimitrios South and Steel 2001, p. 69, Fig. 4

8. WS II; framed dotted multiple triangles Abu Hawam Balensi 1980, Pl. 27:24

9. WS II; multiple lozenges framed by lattice ladder Abu Hawam Balensi 1980, Pl. 28:5

10. WS II; framed wavy lines Heboua Oren 2001, p. 141, Fig. 12:2

11. WS II; framed multiple lattice lozenges and wavy
lines

Abu Hawam Artzy 2001b, p. 109, Fig. 2

12. WS II; framed metope with dotted lines Abu Hawam Balensi 1980, Pl. 22:14

13. WS II; dots framed by lattice ladders Lachish Lachish IV, Pl. 79:834

14. WS II Late; parallel lines Ayios Dhimitrios South and Steel 2001, p. 69, Fig. 5



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 365

Plate 4.2.12



366 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.13: Base Ring I

1. Bowl Gray, metallic Rushmiya Grave Reg. No. 2293/2/23, 2 KA-66

2. Bowl Gray, metallic Rushmiya Grave Reg. No. 2293/2/5, 16, KA-66

3. Bowl Brown; dark gray slip Lachish Tomb 216 Lachish IV, Pl. 81:868

4. Bowl Gray, metallic Jatt Early
Burial Phase

Yannai 2000a, p. 71, Fig. 8:87

5. Krater Gray-brown; gray slip interior, red and
brown slip exterior, highly polished

Lachish Temple I Lachish II, Pl. XLIVB:170



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 367

Plate 4.2.13



368 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.14: Base Ring I

1. Jug# Brown; dark matt gray slip Lachish Tomb 1006 Lachish IV, Pl. 80:841

2. Jug Gray, metallic Jatt Early
Burial Phase

Yannai 2000a, p. 70, Fig. 7:76

3. Jug Brown; dark gray slip Lachish Tomb 216 Lachish IV, Pl. 80:857

4. Jug Gray, metallic Jatt Early
Burial Phase

Yannai 2000a, p. 71, Fig. 8:80

5. Jug Blue-black; close irregular burnish Megiddo Tomb 1100C Megiddo Tombs, Pl. 47:13

6. Jug Gray, metallic Jatt Early
Burial Phase

Yannai 2000a, p. 71, Fig. 8:82

7. Mug Gray, metallic Jatt Early
Burial Phase

Yannai 2000a, p. 71, Fig. 8:86

8. Bottle Brown; dark gray slip Lachish Tomb 216 Lachish IV, Pl. 80:848

9. Bottle Yellowish-brown; brown-gray slip Jerusalem Tomb Amiran 1969, Pl. 54:8

10. Flask Gray, metallic Qubeibeh Ben-Arieh, Ben-Tor, and Godovitz
1993, p. 88, Fig. 11:2

# Published as BR I or II



Plate 4.2.14



370 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.15: Base Ring II

1. Bowl Red; brown slip# Dan VIIB Dan II, Fig. 2.66:79

2. Bowl## Brown; dark gray slip Lachish Tomb 501 Lachish IV, Pl. 81:871

3. Jug Brown; dark gray slip, white
decoration

Lachish Tomb 501 Lachish IV, Pl. 80:847

4. Jug Brown; dark gray slip, white
decoration

Lachish Tomb 1003 Lachish IV, Pl. 80:866

5. Jug Red; gray slip, white decoration Dan VIIB Dan II, Fig. 2.66:78

6. Jug Brown-gray; plastic decoration
at base of neck

Qubeibeh Ben-Arieh, Ben-Tor, and Godovitz 1993,
p. 87, Fig. 10:14

7. Flask Gray-brown; white decoration Qubeibeh Ben-Arieh, Ben-Tor, and Godovitz 1993,
p. 88, Fig. 11:4

# In published description
## Published as BR I or II



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 371

Plate 4.2.15



372 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.16: Red Lustrous Wheelmade

1. Bottle Brown; red slip, burnish Jerusalem Tomb Amiran 1969, Pl. 52:4

2. Bottle Red; lustrous red slip Abu Hawam V Balensi and Herrera 1985, p. 110,
Fig. 14:1

3. Bottle Brown; red slip, burnish Gezer Amiran 1969, Pl. 52:6

4. Bottle Brown; red slip, vertical burnish Lachish Tomb 555 Lachish IV, Pl. 79:815

5. Bottle Pink; red slip, burnish Lachish Temple I Lachish II, Pl. LIB:273

6. Bottle Buff; lustrous brown slip Megiddo VIII Megiddo II, Pl. 58:18

7. Flask Light pink; light red slip ªAra Tomb 1 ªAra, Fig. 6.20:3

8. Arm-shaped
vessel

– Enkomi Tomb 2 Eriksson 1993, Fig. 7: Type
VIIIb:1021



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 373

Plate 4.2.16



374 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.17: White Shaved

1. Juglet Green-buff Megiddo VIII Megiddo II, Pl. 58:9

2. Juglet Greenish-buff Nami Cemetery
Locus 9

Artzy 2006a, p. 59, Fig. 11:6

3. Juglet Buff Acco Locus 59 Artzy 2006a, p. 59, Fig. 11:4

4. Juglet Pinkish-buff Acco Locus 59 Artzy 2006a, p. 59, Fig. 11:5

5. Juglet Red-orange Nami Cemetery
Locus 65

Artzy 2006a, p. 59, Fig. 11:7

6. Juglet Light brown Nami Cemetery
Locus 141b

Reg. No. TN O 36-89, B768/1

7. Juglet Brown ocher Megiddo Tomb 989A1 Megiddo Tombs, Pl. 16:25

8. Juglet Buff Lachish Tomb 216 Lachish IV, Pl. 79:817

9. “Teapot”# Green-buff; red decoration Qubeibeh Ben-Arieh, Ben-Tor, and Godovitz 1993,
p. 88, Fig. 11:11

# Published as White-Painted VI



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 375

Plate 4.2.18: Bucchero Ware

1. Jug Brown; dark gray slip Lachish Tomb 1003 Lachish IV, Pl. 79:830

2. Jug Yellowish-brown; brown-gray slip Jerusalem Tomb Amiran 1969, Pl. 54:17

3. Jug Blue-black; gray decoration Megiddo Tomb 63F Megiddo Tombs, Pl. 63:17



376 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.19: Plain White Wheelmade

1. Bowl Light gray Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 556

Reg. No. 5543/1

2. Bowl Buff Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 640

Yanklevitz 2007, Fig. 6:12

3. Bowl Light pink Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 565

Yanklevitz 2007, Fig. 6:13

4. Bowl Light gray Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 556

Artzy 2006a, p. 56, Fig. 8:9

5. Bowl Light gray Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 550

Reg. No. 5502/16

6. Small basin Buff Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 684

Reg. No. 6553/38

7. Krater Light brown Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 514

Reg. No. 5099/31

8. Krater Light gray Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 555

Reg. No. 5509/9

9. Krater Buff Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 514

Reg. No. 5069/15a

10. Krater Light gray; brown and yellow
decoration

Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 568

Yanklevitz 2007, Fig. 6:15



CHAPTER 4.2: LATE BRONZE AGE I–II CYPRIOT IMPORTS 377

Plate 4.2.19



378 MICHAL ARTZY

Plate 4.2.20: Plain White Wheelmade

1. Krater Pink buff Abu Hawam Locus 534 Artzy 2006a, p. 56, Fig. 8:5

2. Pithos Light brown Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 514

Reg. No. 5039/34

3. Pithos Light brown Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 517

Yanklevitz 2007, p. 62, No. 8

4. Krater Pink Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 562

Reg. No. 5526/1

5. Jug Pink Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 682

Yanklevitz 2007, Fig. 6:14

6. Bottle Light brown Abu Hawam Locus 502 Reg. No. 5094/10

7. Jar Light brown/pink Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 534

Reg. No. 502/1–2

8 Wall bracket Pink Abu Hawam Anchorage
Locus 666

Reg. No. 6506/8

9. Wall bracket Pink Dan VIIB Dan II, Fig 2.61:77



Plate 4.2.20







438 COLOR PHOTOS

Photo 4.2.1

Vessel Plate Photo reference Vessel Plate Photo reference

1. Juglet Like 4.2.1:1 M. Dothan 1976: Fig. 18 7. Jug – ªAjjul, IDA* 35.4110

2. Tankard 4.2.2:3 Megiddo Tombs: Pl. 147:6 8. Juglet – –

3. Tankard 4.2.2:1 – 9. Juglet – –

4. Tankard – – 10. Tankard – IAA No. B-28554

5. Juglet Like 4.2.5:6 Dan II: Fig. 2.62 11. Tankard – Megiddo Tombs: Pl. 148:11

6. Jug – –

Photo 4.2.1:1–2, 10–11 by M. Salzberger (1–2, 11: IAA Nos. B-8020, B-28554, B-28652), courtesy of Israel Antiquities
Authority; 3–9 by M. Artzy, courtesy of Hatter Laboratory, Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa

* Israel Department of Antiquities and Museums



COLOR PHOTOS 439

Photo 4.2.1



440 COLOR PHOTOS

Photo 4.2.2

Vessel Plate Photo reference Vessel Plate Photo reference

1. Jug 4.2.15:5 IAA No. B-28546 8. Bowl Like 4.2.10:2–3 IAA No. B-28528

2. Flask 4.2.15:7 IAA No. B-28537 9.–16. Bottles 4.2.16:1–4 Amiran 1960: Pl. III:3

3. Flask Like 4.2.15:7 IAA No. B-28537 17. Juglet 4.2.17:3 –

4. Bowl 4.2.9:2 – 18. Juglet 4.2.17:4 –

5. Bowl 4.2.11:5 – 19. Zoomorphic – IAA No. B-28533

6. Bowl 4.2.10:1 IAA No. B-28528 20. Zoomorphic – IAA No. B-28533

7. Bowl Like 4.2.10:1–3 IAA No. B-28528 21. Zoomorphic – IAA No. B-28533

Photo 4.2.2:1–3, 6–8, 19–21 by M. Salzberger, courtesy of Israel Antiquities Authority; 4–5, 9–18 by M. Artzy, courtesy of
Hatter Laboratory, Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa



COLOR PHOTOS 441

Photo 4.2.2



445

Abbreviations

AASOR Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research
ADAJ Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan
ADPV Abhandlungen des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins (Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz)
AHL Archaeology and History in Lebanon
AIA Archaeological Institute of America
AIAR W.F. Albright Institute of Archaeological Research
AJA American Journal of Archaeology
AOAT Altes Orient und Altes Testament (Münster: Ugarit-Verlag)
ASOR American Schools of Oriental Research
BA Biblical Archaeologist
BAH Bibliothèque archéologique et historique
BARIntSer British Archaeological Reports International Series (Oxford: Archaeopress)
BASOR Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research
BSAE British School of Archaeology in Egypt
BSAJ British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem
EEF Egypt Exploration Fund
EES Egypt Exploration Society
E-I Eretz-Israel
HUC Hebrew Union College
IAA Israel Antiquities Authority
IEJ Israel Exploration Journal
IES Israel Exploration Society
IFPO Institut français du Proche-Orient
JAEI Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections
JAOS Journal of the American Oriental Society
JEA Journal of Egyptian Archaeology
JMA Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology
JSOT Journal for the Study of the Old Testament
JSOTSS Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press)
JSSEA Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian Antiquities
NEA Near Eastern Archaeology
NEAEHL The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, ed. E. Stern (Jerusalem: IES,

1993 [Vols. 1–4], 2008 [Vol. 5])
OBO Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis (Freiburg: Universitätsverlag)



446 ABBREVIATIONS

OBO.SA Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis Series Archaeologica (Freiburg: Universitätsverlag)
OI Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
OLA Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta (Leuven: Peeters)
OUP Oxford University Press
PEF Palestine Exploration Fund
PEFA Palestine Exploration Fund Annual
PEQ Palestine Exploration Quarterly
QDAP Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities in Palestine
RB Revue Biblique
SBL Society of Biblical Literature
SIMA Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology (Jonsered/Göteborg: Åströms)
SHAJ Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan
ZDPV Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins

Abbreviations in pottery registration numbers
BGU Ben-Gurion University
HU Hebrew University
IAA Israel Antiquities Authority
IoA Institute of Archaeology, University of London
PAM Palestine Archaeological Museum, Rockefeller Museum
TAH Tell Abu Hawam



447

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III: The Middle and Late Bronze Ages: Final
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1988). Qedem Reports 7. Jerusalem: Hebrew
University, 2005.

Chapter 1
Introduction (pp. 3–8), by A. Ben-Tor, D. Ben-

Ami, and A. Livneh.
Chapter 3
The Pottery of the Middle Bronze Age (pp.

41–138), by A. Livneh.
Chapter 7
The Typological Analysis of the Pottery from the

Middle and Late Bronze Ages (pp. 247–348), by
D. Ben-Ami and A. Livneh.

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Pp. 313–30 in “Up to the Gates of Ekron”: Essays
on the Archaeology and History of the Eastern
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S. White Crawford, A. Ben-Tor, J.P. Dessel, W.G.
Dever, A. Mazar, and J. Aviram. Jerusalem: IES.



473

Chronological Periods (bce)*

Middle Bronze Age**

Middle Bronze Age IIA 2000–1750

Middle Bronze Age IIB 1750–1550

Late Bronze Age

Late Bronze Age I 1550–1400

Late Bronze Age IIA 1400–1300

Late Bronze Age IIB 1300–1200

* The chronological table is taken from The New
Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the
Holy Land, ed. E. Stern, which reflects the traditional
dating used in this publication. For an explanation
as to why some dates have been modified in various
chapters, see the Editor’s Notes, No. 1.

** The Middle Bronze Age I (EB IV/Intermediate Bronze
Age), dated 2400/2300–2000 BCE, will be discussed
in the The Ancient Pottery of Israel and Its Neighbors
from the Neolithic Period through the Early Bronze
Age, Volume 4 in the series.


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